Cannabis is a type of plant from the cannabaceae family which contains trees, shrubs and sub-shrubs. It has a certain botanical proximity to strawberries and roses. The cannabis plant has been used by humans for a variety of purposes since the dawn of history, ranging from the production of fiber alone to oils & medicines as well as for religious and ceremonial uses. The cannabis plant produces three main groups of substances: cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. Consumption of these substances encourages an effect on a variety of physiological functions in the human body and may also cause a psychoactive effect.
Hemp is a collective name for a variety of cannabis strains that have been used for various industrial needs such as the production of paper, fabric, rubber, ropes, various fibers and also popular food supplements. Their consumption does not encourage a psychoactive effect, which has contributed to their legitimacy around the world. The earliest use of hemp for industrial purposes occurred thousands of years BC in China. Its importance has grown in the industry since then miraculously, and today humans also produce various products from it, including food, clothing, cosmetics and makeup.
Cannabis strains are divided into four groups - Sativa, Indica, Hybrid and Rodralis, although after centuries of cross-breeding - there is no scientific truth in this division today. Cannabis Sativa is The official botanical name given to the cannabis plant by the famous botanist Carolus Linnaeus in 1753. The term sativum means "domesticated", but over time the term has become a general description of cannabis strains with a high and elongated shape or an energetic psychoactive effect.
When Carolus Linnaeus called cannabis "cannabis sativa", the plants he examined were tall (over a meter and a half), with long stems and an airy and sparse inflorescence. The psychoactive effect of them was uplifting and energetic. The plants that Linnaeus examined were probably from South America, but cannabis was grown in the rest of the world at that time in a completely different structure and with varying psychoactive efects, some even making the consumer drowsy, sedative and analgesic. These varieties were later nicknamed "Cannabis Indica".
Cannabis strains are divided into four groups - Sativa, Indica, Hybrid and Rodralis, although after centuries of cross-breeding - there is no scientific truth in this division today. Cannabis Indica - The nickname given by the French botanist to Mark in 1785 for cannabis species with a low, bushy growth structure, dense blooms, broad fan leaves and a drowsy, soothing, sedative and analgesic effect. The nickname "Indica" comes to symbolize the geographical origin of these varieties - India, Afghanistan, Pakistan and East Asia. Until Lamarck's division, all cannabis plants in the world were considered "cannabis sativa" by botanists.
Cannabis strains are divided into four groups - Sativa, Indica, Hybrid and Rodralis, although after centuries of cross-breeding - there is no scientific truth in this division today. Cannabis hybrid is a nickname that describes strains developed as a result of cross-group hybridization, usually between Sativa and Indica. Cannabis Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis originally had properties that affect the psychoactive effect, medical benefits, structure, nature of growth and flowering.
Breeders and strain developers today strive to glean the salient features from a number of varieties to produce superior products that are not too polar. For example, a hybrid between Indica and Sativa can produce a strain that does not energize or anesthetize too much, and allows for uniform, stable and comfortable use throughout the day.
In addition, a large number of cannabis companies and strain developers are interested in achieving a dense and hard bloom that will be easy to process and impressive during the sale in comparison with airy, fluffy buds that are full of foliage. They can get this from a number of indica strains, but at the same time they want an uplifting energetic psychoactive effect that is common especially in Sativa strains. They also might like to hybridize all these varieties with Rodralis, if they want to develop a product that will bloom automatically. Hybridization and monitoring of the necessary characteristics create hybrid varieties that take advantage of the best of all worlds.
Cannabis strains are divided into four groups - Sativa, Indica, Hybrid and Rodralis, although after centuries of cross-breeding - there is no scientific truth in this division today. Cannabis Ruderalis is a lesser known strain of cannabis that originated mainly in central Russia and was discovered by a Russian botanist named Janiszewski in southern Siberia in 1942. The term ruderalis, or Rudera, refers to a stone or small piece of bronze that the plant can thrive in, but their durability is not the most interesting feature of this group of varieties.
Unlike indica, sativa or hybrid cannabis which require changes in lighting to begin to bloom, cannabis ruderalis will begin to bloom about four weeks after germination and finish after exactly eight weeks. This feature makes it more convenient for home growing and has earned this particular group of varieties the marketing name: Autoflowering Cannabis. However, cannabis ruderalis produces low THC concentrations compared to high CBD ratios, so it is usually hybridized with THC-rich strains to produce products designed to provide a psychoactive effect.
The endocannabinoid system is a nervous system that regulates a variety of physiological functions in the human body; Hunger and appetite, fatigue and vigor, muscle functions, various neurological functions, pain coping and even feelings, emotions and mental state. The endocannabinoid system is made up of receptors scattered throughout the body and divided into two groups: The first group is CB1 receptors that are concentrated in the spine, areas of the brain responsible for movement, the digestive system, reproductive areas and muscle cells. The second group is CB2 receptors that are concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract and foci of the immune system. These receptors respond to the movement of cannabinoids or endocannabinoids that pass through them, thereby managing our bodily function.
Endo-cannabinoids are organic compounds that the body produces independently to activate the cannabinoid receptors scattered throughout it. Endo-cannabinoids were first described by Professor Raphael Meshulam after he isolated THC and CBD compounds for the first time in history. The discovery of the cannabinoids unique to the cannabis plant and the hypothesis of a link between them and the plant's effect on the human body led him to conclude that apparently the human body also produces compounds similar to these - and about twenty-five years later he did discover two of those compounds.
Cannabinoids are unique organic compounds that bind to the various receptors in the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are divided into phyto-cannabinoids produced in plants - mainly cannabis and hemp - and endo-cannabinoids that are naturally produced in the human body. The cannabinoids were first discovered by Professor Raphael Meshulam at the University of Jerusalem in 1963, when it set out to isolate the active ingredients in the cannabis plant for the first time in history. In the same study, Professor Meshulam discovered THC and CBD - the most common cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, and this was found to be a breakthrough that would become the basis of modern cannabis research.
THC - or in its full name: Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most well known cannabinoid in the cannabis plant. THC is also the most common cannabinoid in the plant, and is the main factor responsible for the psychoactive effect that can be felt after consuming cannabis. At the same time, THC also has many medicinal properties; It relieves pain, soothes aggressive or severe emotions, encourages appetite, suppresses nausea and causes fatigue.
CBD is the second most common cannabinoid in cannabis plants and the most dominant in hemp plants. Although it was discovered in 1963 with THC, research on cannabinoids and the development of CBD-rich strains began only in the late decade of the 2000s. CBD does not cause a significant psychoactive effect, but it does have a long list of medicinal properties that help those dealing with a variety of medical symptoms. CBD - CBD is found to be an analgesic, anesthetic, helps with neurological functions, prevents or reduces spasms, epilepsy and brain damage that results from it, it soothes anxiety attacks and has even been tested as a means to help treat various addictions.
CBC or cannabichromene is one of the secondary cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. It is not produced in significant concentrations in most varieties today, but has been more dominant in Indian genetics in the past. CBC has no significant reactivity with the endocannabinoid system and has no psychoactive effect, but it carries anti-inflammatory properties that are boosted in the presence of THC. In addition, CBC is known to have an effect on TRPV1 receptors that encourage the body to produce endocannabinoids - the natural cannabinoids made by the human body. CBC also has beneficial effects on pain management, brain function, depression and is even helpful in cases of acne.
CBN or cannabinol is a secondary cannabinoid that is usually found in trace amounts in cannabis, unless it is over-aged or stored in improper conditions. This is because THC breaks down naturally into cannabinol, so as the age of inflorescence increases, the psychoactive cannabinoid concentrations become CBN. However, unlike THC, CBN is not psychoactive, but it is not free from effect on the human body itself - CBN is known to increase hunger and provide an effective and powerful sleep. It also relieves pain, is beneficial for inflammation and helps in cases of spasm and convulsions. On top of all that - CBN also has antibacterial properties and it accelerates bone growth. It is the first cannabis compound isolated in the late 19th century. Less than a century later CBN was the first cannabinoid to have its chemical structure defined, and in the 1940s it was also the first to be artificially synthesized.
CBG or cannabigerol is a secondary cannabinoid that is usually found in cannabis only in secondary amounts and before the flowering stage where it is converted within the plant to other cannabinoid acids, this reason earned it the nickname "stem cannabinoid". CBG was first isolated in 1964 by Prof. Yechiel Aloni and Prof. Rafael Meshulam in Israel, but the interest and scientific research around it arose following the discovery of the entourage effect and the medical potential of secondary cannabinoids. Studies show that CBG has beneficial properties for dealing with memory problems, intestinal diseases, cancer of the intestines and gastrointestinal tract, glaucoma, loss of appetite and even impressive antibacterial properties that can also eliminate MRSA bacteria.
Science divides the ingredients in the cannabis plant into three main groups: cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. Each plant has a different terpene profile, just like each plant has different flavors and aromas. Terpenes are the components responsible for the aromas and flavors that can be felt in exposure and cannabis consumption, but they also have attributed medicinal properties and the potential to enhance and refine the medical contribution of cannabis to the person consuming it. Terpenes exist not only in cannabis but throughout the plant world, and humans have been using them for hundreds if not thousands of years for industry, perfume, pesticides and cosmetics.
Myrcene is the most common terpene in the cannabis plant. It is evident in most cannabis genetics, and almost every strain produces myrcene at considerable concentrations relative to other terpenes in the plant. Some varieties even produce a terpene profile consisting of 55% Myrcene. The terpene features a sweet-smelling herbal aroma with earthy clover like notes that build a fruity essence which reminds one of mango. In fact, Myrcene is also the one responsible for the taste of the tropical fruit. At the same time, Myrcene is also common in parsley, cloves and a variety of other plants. Myrcene has the potential to soothe pain, anxiety and inflammation and in addition it helps THC to cross the blood-brain barrier and thereby break down in the body more effectively.
Caryophyllene is a fairly common terpene in cannabis plants, but it is also produced in considerable concentrations in black pepper, cinnamon and ylang ylang. Similar to Myrcene, most cannabis genetics produce certain concentrations of caryophyllene and in a large proportion of them its ratio is high, but still its distribution is not as extensive as that of Myrcene. Caryophyllene gives off a pungent earthy woody aroma reminiscent of black pepper and its taste is sweet but contains pungent woody notes. Caryophyllene has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties, analgesic effect and some medical benefit to those dealing with cancerous tumors. It also helps stabilize blood sugar levels and relieves stress and helps in dealing with anxiety attacks.
Limonene is one of the most common terpenes in cannabis, lemon, lime, orange peel and a variety of different citrus fruits - especially in their peel. It has a refreshing citrus aroma but is also known for its range of health benefits. Limonene is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer properties and it even relieves feelings of anxiety. Humans produce detergents, pesticides, perfumes and fragrances from Limonene, but recently medical research has also begun to address its physiological effects. In fact, Limonene is the most researched terpene in the cannabis plant.
Flavonoids are a group of components common in plants and are mainly responsible for their form and colorful expression. To date science has classified over 6,000 different flavonoids with diverse expressions in the plant world, and some of them also appear in cannabis. Flavonoids have been recognized as having anti-inflammatory properties and analgesic properties, and scientists speculate that they have a role in the entourage effect but information on the subject is still lacking.
Indoor growing is a term that refers to closed growing facilities equipped with the appropriate technology to offer the plant ideal conditions. Thanks to lighting, ventilation, humidity control and temperature control, they offer an excellent environment for growing plants, but this environment means a humid and closed area with a relatively high temperature that also longs for a variety of pests. To keep a closed growth facility free of pests requires maintenance installation of an air filtration system as well as an impressive cleaning regime. At the same time, the investment is worthwhile - Indoor breeding facilities usually offer ideal conditions which also means a particularly high quality product in relation to products that have not enjoyed similar favorable conditions.
Outdoor crops or field crops mean planned human care of plants on a plot of land exposed to the sky. This is an old, cheap, simple farming method, which is why most of the agriculture around the world is done in field crops. It is common to see fields with vegetation used to produce food or materials for industry and there are even farmers who grow cannabis this way - but it does not offer the sterilization required for the sale of medical cannabis. Field crops leave the plants exposed to natural damage, pests, animals and even human passers-by that can impair the growing process.
Outdoor or field crops have never offered farmers the protection they want to provide the plant. However, greenhouse crops are an excellent solution to a rich variety of problems and offer protection from a long list of pests. In principle, a greenhouse is an agricultural facility sealed with clear plastic or glass that allows full or partial control of the conditions in the growing area. It also adds protection of the vegetation from pests and extreme weather conditions. The agricultural greenhouses that are common today are indeed an ideal agricultural solution for many types of crops, including cannabis.
Although plants have become accustomed to solar light in the last half billion years, some farmers are not satisfied with its radiation and install artificial lighting systems in greenhouses, enclosed growing facilities and sometimes even in fields to ensure ideal output that is not affected by seasons. Lighting systems are used for a wide variety of purposes; From an artificial extension of the daytime hours that the plant interprets to encourage increased growth to maintaining an intense lighting intensity that will allow flowering or fruiting even on a cloudy day. Along with the considerable success of grow lights, they fail to accurately track the dynamic spectrum offered by the sun and often require enormous amounts of energy to operate.
When a plant grows it is constantly under threat from insects, animals and even human visitors. This appears inevitable when it comes to an open field or a spacious orchard, but it also happens inside closed home grows. To keep the unwanted factors away from the plants farmers choose to make use of pesticides that work in a number of different ways. To prevent the pest from coming, pesticides can maintain an unpleasant environment that will cause it to abandon or choose another growing environment. In case the pest is already present, certain pesticides can sterilize or cause actual damage to the pest that attacks the crop. The only way to grow plants without the use of pesticides is to build an enclosed growing facility that maintains the same strict cleaning standard that is maintained in machining plants and laboratories, and indeed there are companies that choose this route.
The cannabis plant tends to collect pests during cultivation that should be destroyed and disinfected before use, especially when it comes to a medical product. Each country sets a certain purity threshold that the cannabis product must meet, and if it fails to do so it is disqualified for sale. These pests include fungi, various molds and even microbial infections. For this reason many countries require cannabis producers to purify all their inflorescences with the help of disinfection processes that also affect the microbial level. The disinfection processes performed on the cannabis product vary from company to company and their effects on the products vary as well; Some tend to change the concentrations of terpenes in inflorescence, some leave excess flavor or moisture concentrations and each has a different potency.
We have always been told that plants need soil, light and water to grow, but we have not been told what is in water and soil - minerals. Plants need a list of minerals to grow - and the soil in which they grow does not always hold the required amount, especially when it comes to a detached growing medium. For this reason humans throughout history have used various methods to improve the soil and enrich it with minerals, mainly by compost (parts of plants and rotted secretions), animal dung and fertilizer. Fertilizer is a substance composed of minerals in concentrations suitable for plants usually marketed in liquid or powder form. Fertilizer was developed in the first half of the nineteenth century and became popular during the twentieth century due to the convenience of its use. Instead of running an entire farm that will enrich good soil that will feed the plant, the fertilizer offers the plant accurate nutrition in a cheap and convenient bottle for storage. In addition, the use of fertilizer solves the nutritional needs of the plant as it grows in detached substrates (detached from the soil: pots, growing beds, hydroponic, European, etc.). The first fertilizers developed were produced by chemical refining processes from natural minerals and reservoirs and for all institutes: chemical fertilizer or mineral fertilizer, although the definition can also meet organic fertilizers produced from plants, excrement and manure from animals.
Humulin is one of the most common terpenes in the cannabis plant. Apart from cannabis, rich concentrations of Humulin can also be found in certain types of tobacco, sunflowers and hops - hintic to the aromatic resemblance between the plant and cannabis. Humulin has a rich and sour earthy aroma with a touch of sweetness and a bitter taste, qualities that give it great importance in Asian cooking. In addition to its benefits as an additive for taste and smell, Humulin also has anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. All of these features have been backed up by scientific studies. Humulin oral sprays have been found to have high success rates in soothing allergy outbreaks and applying the terpene using pine oil has shown to impair and inhibit the development of cancer cells.
Ocimene is a terpene found in certain varieties of cannabis, but also in cumquat, bergamot, parsley, basil, orchids and certain berries. Ocimene exudes a woody-citrus scent and is accompanied by a sweet berry flavor. Although it sounds tempting - its appeal probably works mostly on humans. Although we have been producing perfumes and cosmetics from the terpene for a long time, Ocimene has innate pesticide qualities. Evidence shows that aphids, moths and a wide variety of pests move away from ocimene. This feature has led pesticide manufacturers to use the terpene in the production of their products. Ocimene also has anti-fungal properties, it is anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and there are studies that indicate that it is able to inhibit certain versions of Covid. Ocimene helps the body in dealing with and fighting a variety of infectious fungi, it helps in dealing with symptoms of diabetes and stressful situations, reduces various inflammatory damages and even supports inhibiting a specific version of SARS, a relative of Covid.
Nerolidol is a common terpene in the cannabis plant, in orange blossom, jasmin, tea, lemongrass and ginger. Nerolidol, sometimes referred to as probiol or pentrol, is an alcoholic and flammable terpene that exudes a woody and floral aroma with sweet, bitter and pungent notes at the same time. Various species of plants have been found to secrete rich concentrations of the terpene during the pest attacks - indicating its effectiveness as a natural pesticide. Accordingly, humans do use nerolidol as a raw material in the production of pesticides, but the terpene is also common as an ingredient in a variety of natural sleeping products, cleansers and disinfectants, perfumes, cosmetics and medical products. Nerolidol has been found to have medical potential in dealing with human cancer cells, it serves as an aid in the penetration of subcutaneous drugs and it exhibits a list of antifungal and antibacterial properties, plus it is antioxidant and protects against brain damage caused by various neurological diseases. In fact, nerolidol has also been found to be effective against malaria. In addition, the terpene helps patients soothe anxieties and fall asleep more easily.
Bisabolol or Levomenol is a common terpene in the cannabis plant, chamomile, figwort and a variety of other wildflowers. The terpene is a liquid and thick alcohol that exudes a delicate, floral and sweet aroma that humans use to produce a variety of perfume and cosmetic products. Another reason that designates Bisabolol to be used as a raw component in the cosmetics industry is its perceived beneficial potential for human skin. Bisabolol is known as a sedative, it is anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial. In addition, it has been found to help a number of subcutaneous drugs to be absorbed into the skin. Moreover, Bisabolol relaxes the muscles in the digestive tract and is even recorded as having a calming effect on anxieties similar to chamomile.
Terpinolene is a terpene common in only about 10% of the cannabis genetics in the world, but it can also be found in nutmeg, lilac flowers, apples, cypress or pine trees and cumin. Humans use terpinolene mainly in the production of soaps, oils and cosmetics - most of them with a lilac scent. The aroma that characterizes the terpene is woody and sweet, reminiscent of fresh pine with a sweet lilac flower. Aside from its rarity and the pleasant aroma it produces, tarpen is also coveted thanks to its medicinal properties. The terpene has a calming and drowsy effect, it helps the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's and colitis, it is antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer and in addition to everything - it also reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Do you know the people who say that in order to grow a plant you only need sun, water and soil? So tell them they were wrong - the plant does not need soil, it needs a growing medium. A growing medium is any substrate that mediates between the minerals and fluids the plant needs and its roots. Although soil is a common growing medium, plants can thrive in substrates consisting of styrofoam, clay, coconut, rubber, rock wool, pure water and even air alone. The choice to use one or another growing medium will affect many characteristics in the cultivation of the plant, and some growing media even require learning a whole bible behind them, such as hydroponics (growing using water as a substrate) or airoponics (growing using air as a substrate).
Among the variety of growing media that gardeners, farmers and professional home growers use these days, it can be seen that coconut shell fibers have become particularly common - especially in domestic and industrial cannabis crops. Coconut fibers are lightweight, offer excellent water and air grip, contain bacteria that fight pests, provide comfortable transport of nutrients to the plant and are even resistant to over-irrigation damage and salt buildup. Compared to soil based substrates consisting of peat quarried from natural sources, Coco coir is eco-friendly and 100% organic, it is completely detached from the soil and therefore offers the grower more convenient control over the amount of fertilizer the plant receives. It is also richer in oxygen up to 100 times compared to soil-based substrates.
From the variety of growing media that gardeners, farmers and professional home growers use these days, it can be seen that perlite has become a popular product - especially in domestic and industrial cannabis crops. Many breeders use perlite as an additive to existing bedding or grow in pure perlite bags for various reasons. Perlite is a mineral with a light structure reminiscent of glass. Its formed in the encounter of Lava with seawater. It is simple and convenient, saves a lot of valuable work time, allows gardening in places that are restricted in movement. It is stiffer than soil and thus airs the density of the growing medium, keeping it softer, airier and lighter. This makes it easier for the plant to develop roots and absorb water and fertilizers, but that's not all. It is inert and therefore very easy to maintain in optimal growing conditions. It is disease-free, protects the plant from extreme temperatures and allows it to bloom most days of the year. In addition - it allows wetting even after it has dried.
From the variety of growing media that gardeners, farmers and professional home growers use these days, it can be seen that vermiculite has become a common additive - especially among home cannabis growers. Vermiculite is a natural rock that swells greatly when heated, and after a production process it is an excellent additive to growing media. Vermiculite acts as a sponge and increases the water grip of the substrate, the drainage and ventilation thus making it easier for the plant to develop roots and absorb water and fertilizers. Vermiculite is also a convenient "docking station" for the beneficial microbial life you have in the substrate - it will allow them a place to establish colonies and improve soil quality as a result.
Hydroponics is the growth of plants without the use of soil, but solely on the basis of water and liquid fertilizer circulated in a system when the water is enriched with Oxygen that will allow and even promote efficient root development. There are a number of hydroponic growing methods or regimes in which the difference is manifested by the way the water is supplied, the directions of its flow and the composition of the fertilizers it contains. The basic principle guiding the hydroponic growing regimes is all the same: a properly fertilized hydroponic solution with chemical properties that are required to allow the healthy development of a plant, in particular the root system. The solution will usually be fertilized with an artificial liquid fertilizer or with an aquaponic fish pond and will be oxidized with the help of air pumps.
Airo is air in Latin, and as the name implies Airoponics is the growth of plants without a soil or water substrate as is customary in hydroponics - but in the air, or more exactly in a dark, humid environment. The plant will usually be hanging mid air and the nutrients will be sprayed on it along with water. In this method, all parts of the plant benefit from oxygen, fertilizer, water and nutrients in a balanced and equal way. Despite the implied complexity, Airoponic growing methods are also suitable for beginning gardeners and they offer a sterile growing option that will work perfect in enclosed spaces, but they are also an expensive option compared to parallel hydroponic growing systems. At the same time, there are manufacturers who have set up Airoponic growing facilities out of a belief in the growing method and are using them to market medical cannabis to patients around the world.
NFT: Nutrient Film Technique
NFT or Nutrient Film Technique is a hydroponic growing method in which plants do not have a growing medium, but are placed in a small pot inside perlite-filled channels through which water with nutrients flows. The perlite draws the nutrients and water that pass through it, and as the roots develop they reach deeper and deeper into the canal to allow more immediate access to the nutrient film. The method is convenient, clean, helps maintain a constant temperature in the root area and a constant supply of oxygen and food to the plants. But despite the implied convenience, this method also has drawbacks: the roots of the plants tend to fill the canals and without proper supervision the situation can lead to blockages, root rot and death of the plants. In addition, the plants need to be balanced and stabilized constantly due to lack of substrate.
When growing cannabis or plants in general in growing environments that do not provide adequate lighting, responsible growers choose to install growing lamps that will complement what the sun is not doing enough, and one of the optimal choices in this situation is LED lighting. LED lighting consists of diodes - small bulbs that emit different light ranges - which are connected to a cooling body and a power provider. LED lighting is an economical and environmentally friendly option for plant lighting that manages to mimic the full light spectrum of the sun relatively efficiently thanks to the ability to adjust and connect a variety of diodes from different ranges and control their operation. Despite the spectrum and (relatively) ecological profile of LED lighting, this technology does not always succeed in delivering the familiar lighting intensity from the classic high-pressure sodium lighting fixtures. In addition, the purchase and maintenance of LED lighting fixtures are relatively expensive and less convenient than similar services for HPS lighting.
When growing cannabis or plants in general in growing environments that do not provide adequate lighting, responsible growers choose to install growing lamps that will complement what the sun is not doing enough, and one of the optimal choices in this situation is high-pressure sodium or HPS lighting systems. HPS lighting usually consists of a ballast housing with a reflector, a bulb and a power supply. The bulbs contain high-pressure sodium gas trapped inside and when an electric current passes through the contents they produce lighting in certain shades suitable for plant growth or flowering. The bulbs consume a lot of electricity to turn them on, and in addition lose their power and need to be replaced once every few months, but the bulb housing and reflector can hold for decades.
A genotype is the sum of the genetic traits that are inherited from one generation to the next - that is, the entire genetic history of a particular lineage. A genotype consists of a pool of genes, and each gene has 2 traits, one of which will be expressed in the DNA of the organism. Because of the randomness in the selection of traits, each seed has a different genotype - like siblings, even if they belong to the same breed or family. The genotype of an organism outlines the creature into which it will grow, but environmental characteristics can also influence the expression of certain genetic traits in the genotype and create what is known as a phenotype. In the case of plants, the genotype contains all the hereditary information related to visibility, aroma, flavors, flowering and embalming abilities, resistance to diseases and pests and more. In the case of cannabis plants, the genotype will determine the plant's ability to produce cannabinoids, terpenes, flavors And steroids and vitamins thus shaping the medical effect and benefit of each strain. For this reason, cannabis growers choose to hybridize varieties to create richer genotypes and locate from them exact phenotypes that they will want to grow.
Phenotype is the sum of the genetic traits that are expressed in the DNA of the organism, including cannabis. That is, of all the hereditary traits that the organism carries in its genotype from all previous generations, the phenotype is a concept that expresses the sum of all those chosen. Unlike the term "strain" which combines similar traits that can occur on several genotypes without any genetic affinity, a phenotype refers to a complete and accurate genetic profile that will be maintained and expressed over and over again if replicated and nurtured under identical living conditions. That is, if we take two plants of the same variety they will not necessarily see, smell or flower similarly. Two plants of the same phenotype will do so. At the same time, the phenotype is sculpted according to the conditions of its environment and the previous, current and future interaction of the DNA with the living area of the organism. This means that changes in living conditions can affect the genetic expression of an organism, shape it and influence the phenotypes that follow it.
Strain, Cannabis Strain
A cannabis strain is a term that categorizes a particular expression (that is usually coveted) of color, shape, aroma, taste, noticeable effect, or other traits into a nickname that will help identify that expression in the future, and differentiate it for marketing or hybridization purposes with other strains. The word "strain" does not necessarily have to have a true genetic meaning; It is possible that two different genetics will display similar expressions and there may be two identical genotypes that will display different traits, but this is a division method that still helps the cannabis industry, patients and consumers to "map" the product they purchase. Cannabis strains are divided into two main types: Landraces which are cannabis strains that have evolved naturally in nature, and hybrid strains created from hybridization or genetic enhancement to adapt to a growing environment or help express and externalize desirable traits.